order: Myliobatiformes 

Family: Mobulidae (devilrays)

Species: 5

REEF MANTA RAY

Mobula alfredi (Krefft, 1868)

IUCN Status

BIOLOGY

Maximum size:            
Maturity size:             

                                      
Birth size:                      
Litter size:   
                
Reproductive mode:     

~500cm DW

Females at ~390 cm DW

Males at ~300 cm DW
130 - 150 cm DW
Unconfirmed, but probably a single pup
Viviparous, with histotrophy

KEY FEATURES

  • Mouth at front of head (terminal)

  • No calcified mass or spine behind dorsal fin

  • Front margins of white shoulder patches curving rearwards (not parallel with front of head)

  • A small black, semicircular spot coming out of fifth gill slits

  • Spiracles slit-like, on dorsal surface behind eyes

  • Disc covered with small, non-overlapping denticles

GIANT MANTA RAY

Mobula birostris (Walbaum, 1792)

IUCN Status

BIOLOGY

Maximum size:            
Maturity size:             

                                      
Birth size:                      
Litter size:   
                
Reproductive mode:     

At least 700 cm DW, possibly up to 910 cm DW

Females at 410–470 cm DW

males at 375–400 cm DW

Unknown

Unconfirmed, but probably only a single pup

Viviparous, with histotrophy

KEY FEATURES

  • Mouth at front of head (terminal

  • A calcified mass containing an embedded spine behind dorsal fin

  • Front margins of white shoulder patches running parallel with front of the head

  • A large black, semicircular spot coming out of fifth gill slits

  • Spiracles slit-like, on dorsal surface behind eyes

  • Disc covered with prominent, strongly overlapping denticles

PYGMY DEVILRAY

Mobula kuhlii (Valenciennes, 1841)

IUCN Status

IUCN DD logo.png

BIOLOGY

Maximum size:            
Maturity size:             

                                      
Birth size:                      
Litter size:   
                
Reproductive mode:     

At least 135 cm DW

Females at ~134 cm DW

Males at ~115 cm DW

31–34 cm DW

Single pup

Viviparous, with histotrophy

KEY FEATURES

  • Mouth subterminal on head

  • Anterior margins of pectoral fins nearly straight

  • Dorsal fin with or without a white tip

  • Tooth bands wide, about 75% of mouth width

  • Spiracles small, circular, below plane of the pectoral fins

  • Base of tail quadrangular in cross-section

GIANT DEVILRAY

Mobula mobular (Bonnaterre, 1788)

IUCN Status

IUCN NE logo.png

BIOLOGY

Maximum size:            
 

Maturity size:             

                                      
Birth size:                      
Litter size:   
                
Reproductive mode:     

At least 520 cm DW, usually less than 310 cm DW

Females at ~236 cm DW,

Males at 198–205 cm DW

~90 cm DW

Single pup

Viviparous, with histotrophy

KEY FEATURES

  • Mouth subterminal on head

  • Pectoral fins moderately falcate

  • A small, serrated caudal spine present

  • A weak bony ridge present along dorsal midline

  • Spiracles slit-like, on dorsal surface behind eyes

  • Dorsal fin with a distinct white tip

CHILEAN DEVILRAY

Mobula tarapacana (Philippi, 1892)

IUCN Status

IUCN VU logo.png

BIOLOGY

Maximum size:            
Maturity size:          
Birth size:                      
Litter size:   
                
Reproductive mode:     

At least 370 cm DW

Males at 234–252 cm DW

105–139 cm DW

Unknown, probably a single pup

Viviparous, with histotrophy

KEY FEATURES

  • Mouth subterminal on head

  • Pectoral fins strongly falcate

  • No spine present on tail

  • A strong bony ridge present along dorsal midline

  • Spiracles slit-like, on dorsal surface behind eyes

  • Dorsal fin plain, without a white tip

Sharks and rays of

papua new guinea

© 2019 Sharks and Rays of PNG 

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